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*Lisa Lailatannur  -  Klinik Utama Rawat Jalan Asc, Indonesia

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Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease or HFMD is a common childhood infectious disease mainly caused by coxsackievirus A16 (CVA 16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71). This HFMD disease can spread throughout the world and also cause outbreaks. Occurrence of this disease is mostly reported in the summer and fall. However, in Indonesia itself, HFMD is still not getting enough attention due to its self-limiting nature, so there is not enough epidemiological data.

Objective: This research was conducted to find out the description of hand, foot, and mouth disease or HFMD.

Methods: Conducting a literature review of previous journal articles related to hand, foot, and mouth disease or HFMD.

Results: HFMD caused by coxsackievirus A16 or CVA16 and enterovirus 71 or EV71 which are self-limiting. Contact with saliva, fluids, and feces of HFMD patients can trigger transmission. Meanwhile, vaccines and antivirals have not been found that can be a way to treat and prevent EV71.

Conclusion: One solution that is considered effective for preventing HFMD is to always practice clean living.


Keywords: Hand, foot and mouth disease; HFMD; eEV71; CVA16; A16

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Keywords: Hand, foot and mouth disease; HFMD; eEV71; CVA16; A16

Article Metrics:

  1. Ai, K. R., Shrestha, P., Yang, B., Chen, Y., Liu, S., Maarouf, M., et al. (2021). Acute Infection of Viral Pathogens and Their Innate Immune Escape. Front. Microbiol., DOI:
  2. Tao, J., He, X.-y., Shi, Y., Zhu, G., Liu, S., Zhang, Z., et al. (2017). Epidemiology of 45,616 suspect cases of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Chongqing, China, 2011–2015. Scientific Reports, Vol. 7 (45630), DOI:
  3. Siegel, K., Cook, A. R., & La, H. (2017). The impact of hand, foot and mouth disease control policies in Singapore: A qualitative analysis of public perceptions. J Public Health Policy, Vol. 38 (2), 271-187. DOI:
  4. Kua, J. A., & Pang, J. (2020). The epidemiological risk factors of hand, foot, mouth disease among children in Singapore: A retrospective case-control study. PLoS One, Vol. 15 (8), DOI:
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  7. Harvala, H., Benschop, K. S., Berginc, N., Midgley, S., Wolthers, K., Simmonds, P., et al. (2021). European Non-Polio Enterovirus Network: Introduction of Hospital-Based Surveillance Network to Understand the True Disease Burden of Non-Polio Enterovirus and Parechovirus Infections in Europe. Microorganisms, Vol. 9 (9), 1827. DOI:
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  9. Yu, X., Zheng, Y., Shi, W., Guan, L., Yu, P., Xu, J., et al. (2020). Pathogenic characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease in Shaanxi Province, China, 2010–2016. Scientific Reports, Vol. 10 (989), DOI:
  10. Qiu, J., Yan, H., Cheng, N., Lu, X., Hu, X., Liang, L., et al. (2019). The Clinical and Epidemiological Study of Children with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Hunan, China from 2013 to 2017. Sci Rep, Vol. 9 (11662), DOI:
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  12. Aswathyraj, S., Arunkumar, G., Alidjinou, E., & Hober, D. (2016). Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD): emerging epidemiology and the need for a vaccine strategy. Med Microbiol Immunol, Vol. 205, 397-407. DOI:

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