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Case Report: Lesson Learned from Delayed Definitive Treatment of Stage 4 HIV Patient with Cerebral Toxoplasmosis – A Case Report

*Galih Ricci Muchamad orcid scopus  -  Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, Indonesia
Muchlis Achsan Udji Sofro  -  Tropical Infection Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University-Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia, Indonesia

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Background: Cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis continue to burden people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This surge in cases is primarily due to patients’ delayed definitive treatment, missed follow-up, and insufficient diagnostic equipment in some regions, particularly in developing countries such as Indonesia.

Case Presentation: We report on a 35-year-old male referred to the emergency department with impairment in four extremities from a secondary healthcare facility. Specific atypical symptoms that mimicked subacute meningitis were identified during the physical examination. Internists, neurologists, and rehabilitation medicine professionals were associated with the management.

Conclusion: We suggest that improved early diagnosis and treatment of HIV patients to prevent opportunistic infections, including cerebral toxoplasmosis, is needed, particularly in primary healthcare facilities in developing countries.

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Keywords: cerebral toxoplasmosis; human immunodeficiency virus; Indonesia; treatment

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