PENGARUH SALINITAS TERHADAP EFEK INFEKSI Vibrio harveyi PADA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei)

Wiji Utami, - Sarjito, - Desrina

Abstract


Penerapan manajemen kualitas lingkungan merupakan langkah yang dapat ditempuh untuk mencegah penyebaran penyakit. Salah satu faktor lingkungan yang berperan penting adalah salinitas media budidaya. Pengaturan salinitas diharapkan mampu menjadi alternatif untuk meminimalisir infeksi Vibrio harveyi pada udang vaname. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh salinitas terhadap infeksi udang vaname (L. vannamei) yang diinfeksi V. harveyi serta mengetahui salinitas optimum yang dapat meminimalisir  infeksi V. harveyi pada udang vaname (L. vannamei). Uji pengaruh salinitas dilakukan dengan menginjeksikan bakteri V. harveyi sebanyak 0,1 mL dengan dosis 2 × 106 CFU/mL secara intramuscular dibagian abdominal kedua. Udang kontrol disuntik Phosphat Buffer Saline (PBS) pH 7.4 dengan volume sama. Udang  dipelihara selama 2 minggu didalam akuarium (vol air 24 L) yang dilengkapi dengan aerator menggunakan 5 perlakuan salinitas yaitu salinitas 15 ppt, 20 ppt, 25 ppt dan 30 ppt. dan 30 ppt (kontrol). Parameter utama yang diamati adalah jumlah ikan yang mati, gejala klinis total bakteri, histopatologi serta kualitas air.  Berdasarkan data parameter pengamatan  salinitas berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0.05) dan (P<0.01) terhadap efek infeksi bakteri V. harveyi pada udang vaname (L. vannamei). Gejala klinis udang sakit yaitu nafsu makan berkurang, berenang miring dan lemah, mendekati gelembung udara, kaki renang, telson dan uropod kemerahan, nekrosis serta melanisasi pada segmen tubuh. Nilai kelulushidupan udang vaname yang diinfeksi V. harveyi tertinggi yaitu 70.83 % (Perlakuan D). Kelimpahan bakteri udang vaname pasca infeksi perlakuan D (1.86 × 104 CFU/mL), C (2.03 × 105 CFU/mL), B (2.55 × 107 CFU/mL) dan A (3.2 × 109 CFU/mL). Pengamatan histopatologi pada jaringan hepatopankreas udang yang diinfeksi V. harveyi terdapat nekrosis pada sel epitel tubula dan perbedaan jumlah sel B.  


Implementation of environmental quality management is a step that can be taken to prevent the spread of disease. One environmental factor that is important is the cultivation medium salinity . Setting the salinity is expected to be an alternative to minimize infection of Vibrio harveyi in whiteleg shrimp. This study aims to determine the effect of salinity on infection whiteleg shrimp ( L. vannamei ) were infected with V. harveyi and determine the optimum salinity which can minimize infection V. harveyi in whiteleg shrimp ( L. vannamei ) . Test the effect of salinity is done by injecting the bacterium V. harveyi as much as a 0.1 mL dose of 2 × 106 CFU / mL intramuscularly second abdominal section . Injected control shrimp Phosphate Buffer Saline ( PBS ) pH 7.4 with the same volume . Shrimp maintained for 2 weeks in the aquarium (water vol 24 L) equipped with an aerator using 5 treatments salinity is 15 ppt salinity, 20 ppt, 25 ppt and 30 ppt. and 30 ppt (control). The main parameters measured were the number of dead fish, total clinical symptoms of bacterial, histopathological and water quality. Based on observations of salinity parameter data was highly significant (P <0.05) and (P <0.01) in the effects of bacterial infection V. harveyi in whiteleg shrimp (L. vannamei). Clinical symptoms are pain shrimp decreased appetite, swim tilt and weak, approaching air bubbles, swimming legs, telson and uropod redness, necrosis and melanisasi the body segments. Value whiteleg shrimp infected shrimp survival V. harveyi high of 70.83% (treatment D). whiteleg shrimp bacterial abundance of shrimp post-infection treatment D (1,86 × 104 CFU / mL), C (2,03 × 105 CFU / mL), B (2,55 × 107 CFU / mL) and A (3,2 × 109 CFU / mL). Histopathological observation on the network infected shrimp hepatopancreas V. harveyi are necrosis of tubule epithelial cells and differences in the number of B cells.


Keywords


Litopenaeus vannamei; Vibrio harveyi; Salinitas

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