Analisa Distribusi Spasial Vegetasi Mangrove di Desa Pantai Mekar Kecamatan Muara Gembong

*Abdul Faqih Hanan  -  Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Ibnu Pratikto  -  Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Nirwani Soenardjo  -  Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Received: 26 May 2020; Published: 16 Jul 2020.
Open Access
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Abstract

Mangrove merupakan vegetasi yang tumbuh di wilayah pesisir dengan kemampuan beradaptasi baik secara morfologi dan fisiologi terhadap lingkungan. Ekosistem mangrove memiliki beragam peran diantaranya peranan ekologi, ekonomi dan sosial budaya. Penyusutan luas hutan mangrove yang terjadi di Kecamatan Muara Gembong menyebabkan penurunan kualitas ekosistem mangrove. Kegiatan rehabilitasi tidak berjalan secara maksimal akibat belum tersedianya peta tematik mangrove untuk menunjang kegiatan penanaman mangrove di wilayah Desa Pantai Mekar yang merupakan salah satu desa di wilayah Kecamatan Muara Gembong. Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis sebaran mangrove, luas vegetasi mangrove dan persentase kategori tutupan vegetasi mangrove melalui pendekatan penginderaan jauh dan validasi lapangan. Citra yang digunakan pada penelitian ini yaitu citra satelit Sentinel 2A. Metode penginderaan jauh yang digunakan untuk mengetahui sebaran mangrove dengan perpaduan composite band dan supervised classification sedangkan untuk luas vegetasi mangrove dan persentase tutupan vegetasi mangrove menggunakan metode Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Metode validasi lapangan untuk tutupan vegetasi mangrove menggunakan hemispherical photography. Hasil penelitian menunjukan sebaran vegetasi mangrove di Desa Pantai Mekar tersebar di daerah ekowisata, wilayah sekitar sungai, daerah muara sungai, bekas tambak dan sekitar tambak dengan luas hutan mangrove sebesar 377,06 ha. Klasifikasi tutupan vegetasi mangrove terdiri dari 81,53 ha (21,62 %) kategori mangrove padat, 77,11 ha (20,45 %) kategori mangrove sedang dan 218,42 ha (57,93 %) kategori mangrove jarang.

 

Mangrove is a tropical coastal vegetation that has the ability to adapt well morphologically and physiologically in the environment. Mangrove ecosystems have various of functions, including ecological, economical, and socio-culture functions. The extensive depreciation of mangrove forests that occurred in the District of Muara Gembong caused a decrease in the quality of the mangrove ecosystem. The rehabilitation activities have not run optimally, because there have not been any thematic maps to support mangrove planting activities in the Pantai Mekar Village area which is one of the villages in the Muara Gembong Subdistrict area. The purpose of this study is to analyze the distribution of mangroves, mangrove vegetation area and percentage of mangrove vegetation cover categories through remote sensing approach and field validation. The image used in this study is the Sentinel 2A satellite image. Remote sensing method used to determine the distribution of mangroves with a combination of composite band and supervised classification, while for the area of mangrove vegetation and the percentage of mangrove vegetation cover using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The field validation method for the mangrove vegetation cover uses hemispherical photography. The results showed that the distribution of the mangrove vegetation in Desa Pantai Mekar spread over the ecotourism areas, watershed, river estuaries, and aquaculture ponds with a total area of 377,06 hectares. The area is consisted of 81,53 hectares (21,62%) dense forest, 77,11 hectares (20,45%) medium dense forest, and 218,42 hectares (57,93%) sparse forest.

Keywords: Mangrove; Sentinel 2A; Desa Pantai Mekar

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