AGENSIA PENYEBAB VIBRIOSIS IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus) PADA KOLAM BEKAS TAMBAK UDANG

Dani Indrarini, Slamet Budi Prayitno, - Sarjito

Abstract


Tingginya permintaan pasar terhadap ikan lele menyebabkan pembudidaya bekerja keras untuk meningkatkan hasil produksi melalui upaya budidaya intensif dalam pemanfaatan lahan bekas tambak. Seiring dengan adanya pemanfaatan lahan bekas tambak yang memiliki kandungan salinitas rendah, maka dimungkinkan untuk terdeteksinya bakteri genus Vibrio. Vibriosis merupakan penyakit bakterial yang sangat merugikan usaha budidaya ikan karena dalam waktu yang sangat singkat dapat menimbulkan tingkat kematian yang tinggi. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode eksploratif. Ikan sampel diambil dari Desa Bulumanis Kabupaten Pati dan Desa Desa Wonosari Kabupaten Demak sebanyak 10 ekor yang diduga terserang penyakit bakteri. Isolasi bakteri menggunakan media TCBS. Organ yang diisolasi yaitu luka – luka pada permukaan tubuh, hati, dan ginjal ikan lele. Hasil isolasi diperoleh 23 isolat lalu diseleksi berdasarkan morfologi koloni hingga diperoleh 5 isolat (LPL14, LDL8, LPG10, LPL4, dan LDH1) untuk uji postulat koch. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gejala klinis ikan lele yang terserang Vibriosis adalah luka kemerahan/borok (ulcer) pada permukaan tubuh, hemoragi (luka kemerahan), perut berisi cairan kuning dan sirip gripis yang disertai luka kemerahan. Identifikasi bakteri dilanjutkan dengan uji biokimia. Agensia penyebab Vibriosis ikan lele pada kolam bersalinitas rendah adalah bakteri genus Vibrio  (LPL 14, LDL 8, dan LPG 10), Vibrio vulnificus (LDH 1), dan Vibrio harveyi (LPL4). Pengamatan histopatologi diperoleh bahwa terjadi kerusakan pada organ hati berupa kelainan nekrosis, degenerasi vakuola, melanomakrofag, dan kongesti.

 

High market demand of catfish causes an increase of the farmer effort to increase the production by extensification using unproductive brackish pond area. In a row of using a brackish pond area which has a low salinity, consequently Vibriosis are detected in the pond culture. Vibriosis is a bacterial diseases that can causes loss in aquaculture at a short time can lead a high mortality rate. Research method used explorative method. 10 samples of fish were taken from Bulumanis village, Pati regency and Wonosari village, Demak regencies which were potentially infected by Vibrio. Isolation of bacteria were done in TCBS medium. Bacterial isolates were collected from fish lesion on the body surface, liver, and kidney of catfish. Isolation were able to gained 23 isolates and then 5 isolates (LPL14, LDL8, LPG10, LPL4, and LDH1) were selected based on colony morphology to do postulates koch’s test. The results of this research showed that the clinical signs of catfish infected by Vibrio were redness lesions/ulcer on the body surface, hemorrhagic, fluid inside stomach, and fin eroded with redness wound. Bacterial identification through biochemical test revealed that the causative agent of catfish disease at brackish pond area were bacteria of the genus Vibrio (LPL 14, LDL 8, and LPG 10), Vibrio vulnificus (LDH 1), and Vibrio harveyi (LPL4). Observation of histopathology found necrosis, vacuolar degeneration, melanomacrofage, and congestion in the liver.


Keywords


Ikan Lele Dumbo; Clarias gariepinus; Vibriosis; Uji Postulat Koch; Histopatologi

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