PERFORMA PERTUMBUHAN BENIH IKAN NILA HITAM (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) MELALUI PENAMBAHAN ENZIM PAPAIN DALAM PAKAN BUATAN

Depri Irawati, Diana Rachmawati, - Pinandoyo

Abstract


Pemanfaatan protein dalam pakan merupakan salah satu masalah dalam kegiatan budidaya ikan nila hitam yang sangat erat kaitannya dengan pertumbuhan. Penambahan enzim papain pada pakan dilakukan untuk dapat memanfaatkan protein secara maksimal dan lebih optimal pada kultivan. Papain merupakan enzim protease  yang mampu menghidrolisis protein menjadi unsur-unsur yang lebih sederhana yaitu peptida hingga asam amino, sehingga meningkatkan pemanfaatan protein pakan oleh tubuh. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan enzim papain dalam pakan buatan serta dosis enzim papain yang optimal terhadap performa pertumbuhan benih ikan nila hitam (O. niloticus Bleeker). Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah benih nila hitam dengan bobot rata-rata 2,49±0,25 gr.ekor-1 dan padat tebar 1 ekor.L-1. Pemberian pakan 3 kali sehari pada pukul 08.00, 12.00, dan 16.00 secara at satiation. Penelitian dilakukan secara eksperimental menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 4 perlakuan dan 3 kali ulangan. Perlakuan A (0% papain), perlakuan B (1,125% papain), perlakuan C (2,25% papain) dan perlakuan D (3,375% papain). Variabel yang diamati adalah laju pertumbuhan relatif, protein efisiensi rasio, efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan, kelulushidupan dan kualitas air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa  penambahan enzim papain dalam pakan buatan memberikan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05) terhadap peningkatan pertumbuhan relatif, protein efisiensi rasio, efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan dan tidak berpengaruh (P>0,05) terhadap kelulushidupan. Dosis papain: 2,38%, 2,34%, 2,33%, 2,72% mampu menghasilkan laju pertumbuhan relatif, protein efisiensi rasio, efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan dan net protein utilization optimal masing-masing sebesar 1,84%/hari, 2,38%, 71,6%, 0,804% untuk benih nila hitam. Kualitas air selama penelitian masih berada dalam kisaran yang layak untuk media budidaya ikan nila hitam.

 

Utilization of protein in a feed is one of the problems in the black tilapia aquaculture that are closely related to the growth. The addition of the papain enzyme in the feed is used  to get a full advantage from protein maximally and more optimally for the kultivan. Papain is a protease enzyme that is able hydrolyze a proteins into simpler elements like peptides to amino acids, so it can be increase the utilization of protein in feed by the body. The purpose of this  research were to determine the effect of addition  papain enzyme in artificial feed and to determine the optimal dose of papain enzyme to growth performance of black tilapia seed (O. niloticus Bleeker). Test fish used black tilapia seed with weight approximately 2.49±0.25 g.fish-1 and stock density 1 fish. L-1. Feeding was done in 3 times a day at 08:00, 12:00, and 16:00 in at satiation method. The research used experimental method by completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 3 replications. Treatment A (0% papain), treatment B (1.125% papain), treatment C (2.25% papain) and treatment D (3.375% papain). The observed variables were relative growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, efficiency of feed utilization, survival rate and water quality. The results showed that the addition of papain enzyme in artificial feed gave a significant effect (P<0.05) to increase the relative growth, protein efficiency ratio, feed utilization efficiency and had no effect (P>0.05) on survival rate. The dose of papain which was obtained is: 2.38%, 2.34%, 2.33%, 2.72% capable to produce relative growth rate, efficiency ratio, efficiency feed utilization and net protein utilization optimal 1.84%/day, 2.38%, 71,6%, 0,804% for the black tilapia. Water quality during the research is still in a decent range for a medium black tilapia fish aquaculture.


Keywords


pertumbuhan; nila hitam; papain; pakan

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