PENGARUH PERENDAMAN EKSTRAK DAUN JAMBU BIJI (Psidium guajava. L) TERHADAP KELULUSHIDUPAN DAN HISTOLOGI HATI IKAN PATIN (Pangasius hypophtalamus) YANG DIINFEKSI BAKTERI Edwardsiella tarda

Endah Setyowati, Slamet Budi Prayitno, - Sarjito

Abstract


Budidaya ikan patin (P. hypophtalamus) terus berkembang seiring adanya nilai ekonomis yang semakin baik. Budidaya Intensifikasi dapat mengakibatkan timbulnya penyakit seperti bakteri E. tarda. Infeksi bakteri tersebut dapat mengakibatkan kegagalan budidaya dan kerugian ekonomi. Penggunaan antibiotik terbukti meningkatkan resisten dan membahayakan kesehatan manusia, sehingga menggunakan bahan alami yaitu ekstrak daun jambu biji (P. guajava. L). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sensitivitas ekstak daun jambu biji sebagai antibakteri terhadap bakteri E. tarda, mengetahui pengaruh perendaman dan dosis terbaik ekstrak daun jambu biji terhadap kelulushidupan dan histologi ikan patin yang terinfeksi bakteri E. tarda. Pelarut yang digunakan dalam ekstraksi daun jambu biji adalah etanol 96%. Ikan patin yang digunakan sebanyak 120 ekor dengan ukuran 7-9 cm dan disuntik bakteri E. tarda dengan kepadatan 107 CFU/ ml secara intramuscular. Penelitian ini menggunakan 4 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan yaitu perlakuan A (0 ppm), B (500 ppm), C (700 ppm) dan D (900 ppm). Perendaman ekstrak daun jambu biji dilakukan pada hari ke 2 pasca infeksi. Ekstrak daun jambu biji memiliki kemampuan sebagai antibakteri pada konsentrasi 500-1100 ppm. Hasil prosentase kelulushidupan ikan patin diantaranya adalah 10% (perlakuan A), 73,33% (perlakuan B), 96,67% (perlakuan C) dan 86,67% (perlakuan D). Perendaman ekstrak daun jambu biji berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05) terhadap kelulushidupan ikan patin yang diinfeksi bakteri E. tarda. Pengamatan histologi hati terdapat nekrosis, kongesti degenerasi dan melanomakrofag, dapat disimpulkan dosis terbaik ekstrak daun jambu biji untuk mengobati infeksi E. tarda adalah 700 ppm.

 

Intensification of Catfish (P. hypophtalamus) aquaculture increases a disease risk, such as E. tarda infection. Infection of this bacteria resulted in economic disadvantage in aquaculture. The usage of antibiotics resulted in a high resistant and endanger for human health, therefore the use of  natural ingredient such as guava leaves (P. guajava. L) could be promoted. The aims of this research were to determine the sensitivity of  guava leaves extract  as  antibacterial toward E. tarda, determine the soaking effect and the best dose of guava leaves extract toward the survival rate and histhology of Catfish infected by E. tarda. Guava leaves extract was obtained by dipping in ethanol 96%. Catfish used were 120 fish, around 7-9 cm in size and were injected by E. tarda with density of 107 CFU / mL intramuscularly. This research used 4 treatments and 3 replication,namely were 0 ppm (treatment A), 500 ppm (treatment B), 700 ppm (treatment C) and 900 ppm (treatment D). The soaking of guava leaves extract was done in 2nd day post-infection. Guava leaves extract has ability toward antibacterial in 500-1100 ppm contentrate. The result showed that survival rate of Catfish were 10% (treatment A), 73,33% (treatment B), 96,67% (treatment C) dan 86,67% (treatment D). The soaking of guava leaves extract showed a significant effect (P<0.05) toward survival rate of Catfish infected by E. tarda. The histhology of liver howed of necrosis, congestion,degeneration and melanomacrofag. It can be concluded that the best guajava leaves extract to combat E. tarda infection was 700 ppm.


Keywords


Daun Jambu Biji; Patin; Edwardsiella tarda

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