KEANEKARAGAMAN AGENSIA PENYEBAB VIBRIOSIS PADA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei) DAN SENSITIVITASNYA TERHADAP ANTIBIOTIK

Milza Apriliani, - Sarjito, Alfabetian Harjuno Condro Haditomo

Abstract


Udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei) merupakan salah satu jenis udang ekonomis penting di Indonesia. Serangan vibriosis adalah salah satu kendala pada kegiatan budidaya udang vaname. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui agensia penyebab vibriosis yang menginfeksi udang vaname di Tambak Intensif Desa Wonorejo, Kendal, sensitivitasnya terhadap antibiotik eritromisin, enrofoloksasin, dan oksitetrasiklin, serta gejala klinis udang vaname yang terserang vibriosis. Metode pada penelitian ini adalah metode eksploratif konfirmatori dan metode pengambilan sampel menggunakan metode purposive sampling. Bakteri Vibrio diisolasi dari bagian hepatopankreas dan ekor pada media Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt Agar (TCBSA). Berdasarkan karakteristik morfologi terdapat 37 isolat yang diperoleh, kemudian dilakukan identifikasi secara biokimia sehingga didapatkan 5 jenis bakteri Vibrio. Kelima jenis bakteri Vibrio dilakukan uji sensitivitas dan uji postulat Koch. Udang vaname yang digunakan dalam uji postulat Koch memiliki panjang tubuh 10-12 cm yang disuntik dengan kelima isolat bakteri dengan konsentrasi 106 CFU/mL. Antibiotik yang digunakan dalam uji sensitivitas adalah eritromisin, enrofoloksasin, dan oksitetrasiklin dengan dosis 35µg. Bakteri Vibrio sp., berasarkan identifikasi secara biokimia adalah V. parahaemolyticus, V. harveyi, V. fluvialis, V. mimicus, dan V. vulnificus. Hasil uji sensitivitas menunjukkan bahwa kelima isolat bakteri resisten terhadap antibiotik eritromisin, enrofoloksasin, dan oksitetrasiklin. Udang vaname yang terserang vibriosis di Tambak Intensif Desa Wonorejo, Kendal serupa dengan gejala klinis yang ditunjukkan udang vaname pada uji Postulat Koch yaitu hepatopankreas kecoklatan, uropoda kemerahan, pereopoda kemerahan, pleopoda kemerahan, nekrosis pada antennal scale dan berwarna kemerahan, serta terdapat melanosis pada abdomen. Hasil uji postulat Koch menunjukkan bahwa kelima isolat bakteri mengakibatkan udang vaname sakit engan gejala klinis sama dengan udang vaname sampel dan menimbulkan kematian  92% - 100% selama 14 hari masa pemeliharaan.


Vaname shrimp is one of shrimp species that has an important economic value in Indonesia. The vibriosis desease is on of the constraints on vaname shrimp aquaculture activities. The purposes of this research are to discover clinical signs and vibriosis causative agent that infected vaname shrimp farmed intensively in the village of Wonorejo Kendal Regency as well as its sensitivity against antibiotics erythromycin, enrofoloxacin, and oxytetracycline. The methods of this research are explorative confirmatory method and sampling method using purposive sampling method. Vibrio bacterium is isolated from hepatopancreas and tail on Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt Agar media (TCBSA). Based on morfology characteristic, there are 37 isolat, which are obtained and then identified biochemically, therefore they result 5 types of Vibrio sp., bacterium. After that, the 5 of Vibrio sp., bacterium is performed sensitivity test and Koch’s postulates test. The length of vaname shrimp’s body that is used during the Koch’s postulates test is 10-12 cm and then injected by the 5 of isolat bacterium with concentration 106 CFU/mL. The antibiotic that is used during the sensitivity test are erythromycin, enrofoloxacin, and oxytetracycline with the dose 35µg. Vibrio bacterium based on the biochemical test are V. parahaemolyticus, V. harveyi, V. fluvialis, V. mimicus, dan V. vulnificus. The result of sensitivity test shows that the five of isolates bacterium are resistant against antibiotics erythromycin, enrofoloxacin, and oxytetracycline. Clinical signs that is shown by vaname shrimp farmed intensively in the village of Wonorejo Kendal Regency which contaminated vibriosis and Koch’s postulates test are browny on hepatopankreas, redish on uropoda, pereopoda and pleopoda, redish and necrosis on antennal scale, and melanosis on abdomen. The Koch’s postulates result shows the five of isolat bacterium cause vaname shrimp get sick with similar clinical signs to vaname shrimp sample and they result on high mortality ≥ 92% during 14 days of maintenance.


Keywords


Litopenaeus vannamei; Vibriosis; Postulat Koch; Sensitivitas; Antibiotik

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