Dinamika Gerakan Etnonasionalisme Kurdi Irak (Studi Kajian Periode 1979-2012)

Tunggul Ganggas Danisworo, Tri Cahyo Utomo, Puji Astuti

Abstract


The Kurds are one of the ethnic groups living in several countries in the Middle East,
they have goals and ambitions of creating an independent Kurdish state and sovereignity. But
after the first world war ended, they had to live apart due to the Kurdistan region is divided into
several sovereign countries (Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey) by the United Nations. Kurds in Iraq
in the Kurdish history is the most aggressive in expressing their aspirations than the Kurds in
other countries. They created an ethnic nationalist movement used in order to demand the
freedom of Kurdish aspirations. Started in 1919, Mahmud Barzanji declare the Kurdish struggle
in Iraq through the uprising known as Sulaymaniyah revolution. No accommodation of the
interests of the Iraqi Kurds by successive regimes dominate Iraq, making Iraq's Kurdish ethnic
rebellion continued until the end of Iraq controlled by the authoritarian regime of Saddam
Hussein. The period of Saddam Hussein's regime was the toughest period in the history of ethnic
Kurds. Various Iraqi Kurdish policy of ethnic cleansing began intensified by the authoritarian
regime of Saddam Hussein, but when it is also movement in Iraq's Kurdish ethnic nationalism
grew stronger.
This study describes how the patterns of strategy ethnonationalism Kurdish movement in
Iraq during the reign of Saddam Hussein to go into Iraq's democratic process (period 1979-
2012), as well as explaining what policies have been issued in order to accommodate the
interests of Kurds in Iraq during that period. This study also describes contemporary conflicts
involving Iraq's ethnic Kurds as an actor in the conflict. So in this research will be able to see
how it changes shape patterns of Iraqi Kurdish nationalist movement from time to time as well as
the influence behind the change.

Keywords: Iraq, Kurdish, Ethnonationalism


Keywords


Iraq; Kurdish; Ethnonationalism

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