Pengaruh Pencelupan Ekstrak Daun Sirih Temurose (Piper betle linn) terhadap Mortalitas dan Histophatologi Ginjal Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio) yang Diinfeksi Bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila

- Istikhanah, - Sarjito, Slamet Budi Prayitno

Abstract


Aeromonas hydrophila merupakan salah satu penyebab penyakit bercak merah atau Haemerrhagic  Septicaemia pada ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio) yang saat ini menjadi permasalahan serius dalam budidaya. Salah satu bahan alami yang dapat digunakan  untuk  pengobatan  penyakit  aeromonas adalah  ekstrak daun sirih temurose (Piper betle linn). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan ekstrak daun sirih temurose terhadap mortalitas dan histopatologi ikan mas yang diinfeksi bakteri A. hydrophila. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua tahap uji, yaitu uji in vitro dan uji in vivo. Pada uji in vivo metode yang digunakan adalah eksperiment laboratoris dengan menggunakan 4 perlakuan yaitu 0 ppm, 800 ppm, 900 ppm, 1000 ppm. Ikan terlebih dahulu diinfeksi dengan cara menyuntikkan 0,1 ml suspense Aeromonas hydrophila sebanyak ±107 cfu/ml secara intramuskular. Setelah menunjukkan gejala klinis, ikan mas direndam dalam ekstrak sirih temurose selama 5 menit yang dilakukan pengulangan 2 kali. Parameter yang diamati adalah gejala klinis, mortalitas dan histologi ginjal dan  ikan mas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gejala klinis ikan mas yang terinfeksi A. hydrophila diantaranya respon pakan menurun, berenang disekitar aerasi, terdapat luka dan daging ikan rusak (nekrosis). Hasil uji in vivo memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda nyata (p<0.05) terhadap mortalitas ikan mas. Konsentrasi yang paling baik adalah 800 ppm (27.29±15.34%), kemudian diikuti perlakuan dengan konsentrasi 900 ppm (37.26±3.41%), konsentrasi 1000 ppm (46.07±22.08%) and 0 ppm (83.86±10.64%). Hasil pengamatan histologi ginjal pada ikan mas menunjukan bahwa pada perlakuan 0 ppm terjadi nekrosis, degenerasi, dan pada perlakuan 800 ppm, 900 ppm dan 1000 ppm terjadi degenerasi.

 

Aeromonas hydrophila is a causative agent of  Haemerrhagic Septicemia on carp which now become a serious problem in fish culture. One of natural materials that can be used to treat disease caused by A. hydrophila is of betle leaf extract (Piper betle linn). The aims of this research were to investigate the effect of betel leaf extract on mortality of carp infected by A. hydrophila and to determine the best dosage to reduce mortality and histopathogy of infected carp. This research was performed by two set of experiments which were in vitro and in vivo study. Dilution  method was used in vitro study by 4 different concentration of betel leav extract which were 0 ppm, 800 ppm, 900 ppm and 1000 ppm. Firstly fish was injected through intramuscularly with 0,1 ml A. hydrophila bacterial suspentoin of 10 7cfu/ml. When the clinical signs were appeared, fish was immersed in various betel leaf extract concentration for 5 minutes and replicated twice. The variables observed were clinical sign, mortalitas, histology of study liver and kidney carp. The results showed Clinical sign of infected carps were swimming abnormally close to aeration,wounds, and haemerrhagi in skin and ulcer make necrosis. In vivo study, betel leaf extract with different concentrations and immersed 5 menitus that given was showed significantly different for the mortality of the carp. The best concentration was 800 ppm (27.29±15.34%), followed by 900 ppm (37.26±3.41%), 1000 ppm (46.07±22.08%) and 0 ppm (83.86±10.64%) respectively. The results of kidney histology observation showed 0 ppm degeneration and necrosis, 800 ppm, 900 ppm and 1000 ppm also showed degeneration.


Keywords


Sirih temurose; Aeromonas hydrophila; Mortalitas; Histopatologi ginjal

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