INFEKSI WHITE SPOT SYNDROM VIRUS (WSSV) PADA UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon Fabr.) YANG DIPELIHARA PADA SALINITAS MEDIA YANG BERBEDA

Hardyta Noviar Rahma, Slamet Budi Prayitno, Alfabetian Harjuno Condro Haditomo

Abstract


Udang windu (Penaeus monodon Fabr.) merupakan komoditas asli Indonesia yang telah dibudidayakan cukup lama. Produksi udang windu pada 10 tahun terakhir diambil alih oleh udang vaname. Hal ini karena produksi dan produksifitas udang windu terus menurun 30,5% selama 5 tahun dari 180.000 ton (1995) menjadi 125.000 ton (2000). Penyebab utama penurunan produktifitas adalah wabah penyakit White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Penyakit WSSV dapat menyebabkan kematian masal dalam waktu singkat 6-11 hari pasca gejala klinis. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 5 perlakuan berbagai salinitas dengan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan salinitas terdiri dari A (10 ppt), B (15 ppt), C (20 ppt), D (25 ppt), dan E (30 ppt). Parameter penelitian yang diamati adalah gejala klinis, mortalitas, dan keberadaan virus WSS. Hewan percobaan yang digunakan adalah gelondongan udang dengan ukuran 2,5 ±0,14 g sebanyak 180 ekor. Infeksi WSSV dilakukan melalui perendaman 20 mg/ml WSSV selama 3 jam. Pengamatan dilakukan selama 21 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa mortalitas tertinggi dan tercepat adalah perlakuan A dengan mortalitas 100% dalam waktu 6 hari dan tidak menunjukkan gejala klinis spesifik WSSV. Demikian pula perlakuan B dan C menglami mortalitas 100% dan juga tidak ditemukan gejala klinis spesifik WSSV. Gejala klinis spesifik WSSV ditemukan pada perlakuan D dihari ke-9 dengan mortalitas 43,33%. Uji PCR menunjukkan positif WSSV pada perlakuan A, B, C, D dan negatif WSSV pada perlakuan E. Gejala klinis udang windu yang terinfeksi WSSV adalah udang mendekati aerasi, lemah, tidak responsif, penurunan respon pakan, hepatopankreas pucat, tubuh kemerahan, berenang miring hingga berputar, dan bintik putih. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa pada salinitas 30 ppt infeksi WSSV pada udang windu lebih rendah dibandingkan salinitas 10 ppt, 15 ppt, 20 ppt, dan 25 ppt.

 

Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabr.) is an endogenous species that has been traditionaly cultured by Indonesian fisherman. Production of tiger shrimp in the last 10 years were replaced by white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This disease has caused several decline shrimp productivity around 30,5% from 180.000 tonnes in 1995 to only 125.000 tonnes in 2000. It was due to disease outbreaks cause by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). WSSV could cause high mortality within 6-11 days after clinical sign was shown. This experimental method used RAL with 5 salinity treatments and 3 replications. Salinity treatments were A (10 ppt), B (15 ppt), C (20 ppt), D (25 ppt), and E (30 ppt). This research was aimed to find out the effect of various salinities concentration to the clinical sign, mortality, and the presence of WSSV in the tested shrimp. The animal tested were 180 tiger shrimps with 2,5 ±0,14 g weight. WSSV infection was done by submerging the tiger shrimp in 20 μg/ml WSSV for 3 hours. The observation was done for 21 days. The result showed the fastest and highest mortality was found in treatment A with 100% mortality in 6 days and without spesific sign of WSSV. While in threatment B and C showed same with 100% mortality and without clinical sign of WSSV. The spesific clinical sign of WSSV was showed in treatment D in day 9 with 43,33% mortality. The PCR test showed positive WSSV in treatment A, B, C, D and negative WSSV in treatment E. The clinical signs of WSSV infected tiger shrimp were approaching aeration, weak, unresponsive, decreased feeding response, pale hepatopankreas, reddish body, whirling, and white spots. The conclusion was in 30 ppt salinity the infection of WSSV in tiger shrimp was lower than the other salinity treatments (10 ppt, 15 ppt, 20 ppt, and 25 ppt).


Keywords


Udang windu; White Spot Syndrom Virus (WSSV); Salinitas; Mortalitas

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