EFEK PERSILANGAN RESIPROKAL TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN AYAM KEDU

Nungki Ikasari, Edi Kurnianto, Irene Sumeidiana

Abstract


Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui penampilan keturunan persilangan resiprokal berupa bobot tetas, pertumbuhan dan mortalitas pada galur ayam Kedu Hitam dan Putih. Materi yang digunakan anak ayam hasil perkawinan Reciprocal Cross dari 6 ekor ayam Kedu jantan, yaitu 3 ekor jenis hitam (HH) dan 3 ekor jenis putih (PP), serta 24 ekor ayam Kedu betina terdiri dari 12 ekor jenis hitam (HH) dan 12 ekor jenis putih (PP). Persilangan resiprokal sebagai perlakuan antara PP dan HH dilakukan dengan rasio perkawinan 1 ekor jantan : 4 ekor betina. Parameter yang diamati meliputi bobot tetas, pertumbuhan, mortalitas selama 6 minggu. T test digunakan untuk analisis data. Hasil penelitian diperoleh bobot tetas ayam Kedu PP x HH sebesar 33,02 g, sedangkan Kedu HH x PP, yaitu 32,35 g. Penampilan bobot badan (g) anak ayam Kedu dalam kelompok kedua jenis kelamin untuk ayam Kedu PP x HH, yaitu minggu ke-0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 dan 6 yaitu, 33,02, 39,16, 63,48, 107,81, 148,69, 227,18 dan 284,77. Ayam Kedu HH x PP, yaitu 32,35, 51,95, 75,69, 126,91, 170,24, 246,29 dan 312,18. Rata-rata angka kematian dari umur 0-6 minggu pada PP x HH 0,3% dan HH x PP 0,1%. Heterosis bobot badan anak ayam Kedu kelompok kedua jenis kelamin adalah minggu ke-0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 dan 6 yaitu, 12,78, 12,25, -14,36, -5,05, -17,24, -17,23, -21,53. Kelompok jenis kelamin betina adalah minggu ke-0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 dan 6 yaitu, 17,47, 11,12, -15,13, -8,14, -17,30, -15,32, -19,46; kelompok jenis kelamin jantan adalah minggu ke-0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 dan 6 yaitu, 11,85, 13,84, -13,29, -3,38, -16,76, -17,56, -21,97. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah tidak ada perbedaan produktivitas pada persilangan resiprokal ayam Kedu. Kata Kunci : persilangan resiprokal; bobot tetas; pertumbuhan; mortalitas; maternal effect

ABSTRACT

This research was aimed to evaluate the performance of the offspring resulted from reciprocal cross in hatching weight, growth, and mortality in the line of white and black Kedu chicken. The materials used were the chicken of reciprocal cross of 6 male of Kedu chicken ; those were 3 black chicken (HH) and 3 white chicken (PP) and 24 females of Kedu chicken consisting of 12 black (HH) and 12 white chicken (PP). Reciprocal cross as the treatment between PP and HH was conducted with the mating ratio of 1 male : 4 females. The observed parameters were hatching weight, growth, and mortality for 6 weeks. The t-test was used for data analysis to compare the performance between two sexes and between two cross system (HH x PP and PP x HH). The results showed that the average hatching weight of Kedu chicken of PP x HH was 33.02 g and the Kedu chicken of HH x PP was 32.35 g. The performance of Kedu chick in both two groups of sex (g) for PP x HH in the week 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were 33.02, 39.16, 63.48, 148.69, 227.18, 284.77, respectively. Meanwhile for HH x PP in the week 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were 32.35, 51.95, 75.69, 126.9, 170.24, 246.29, 312.18, respectively. The average mortality in PP x HH was 0,3% and HH x PP was 0,1%. The heterosis effect of weight in both group of sex in the week 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were 12.78, 12.25, -14.36, -5.05, -17.24, -17.23, -21.53, respectively. In the female, the heterosis effect were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were 17.47, 11.12, -15.13, -8.14, -17.30, -15.32, -19.46, respectively; whereas in the male 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were 11.85, 13.84, -13.29, -3.38, -16.76, -17.56, -21.97, respectively. In conclution, there was no differences in the productivity of the reciprocal cross of Kedu chicken.

Keywords: reciprocal cross; hatching weight; growth; mortality; maternal effect;


Keywords


persilangan resiprokal; bobot tetas; pertumbuhan; mortalitas; maternal effec;reciprocal cross; hatching weight; growth; mortality; maternal effect;

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